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性别和收入对体力活动和2型糖尿病影响的研究 Physical Activity and Type 2 Diabetes Exploring the Role of Gender and Income
2011/6/27   双语园地 

From the Centre for Health Promotion Studies, School of Public Health (Ms Barrett, Dr Plotnikoff, Dr Raine), and the Faculty of Physical Education (Dr Plotnikoff, Dr Courneya), University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada.
 
Correspondence to Ronald C. Plotnikoff, PhD, Centre for Health Promotion Studies, School of Public Health, University of Alberta, 5-10 University Extension Centre, 8303 112th Street, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2T4 (ron.plotnikoff@ualberta.ca).
 
Purpose
The purpose of this study was to explore (1) patterns in physical activity behaviors and (2) the meaning and personal significance of social cognitive theory (SCT) constructs on physical activity, across gender and income groups among people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM).
 
目的
这项研究的目的是(1)探究体力活动行为模式(2)研究在不同性别和收入的2型糖尿病患者中运用社会认知理论构建体力活动的意义和对个人的重要性。
 
Methods
Albertans, 18 years and older (x- = 63, SD = 12.08) with T2DM (N = 1614) completed self-report measures of demographic characteristics and physical activity. Two-way, between-groups analyses of variance (ANOVAs) assessed main and interaction effects of gender and income on leisure time physical activity (LTPA). A subsample of these participants (n = 20) subsequently completed qualitative telephone interviews to provide contextual understanding of the quantitative data and to explore salient SCT influences on physical activity.
 
方法
招募年龄大于等于18岁的(年龄均数63,标准差12.08)患2型糖尿病患者(人数共1614人)完成描述人口统计学特征和日常体力活动的自我报告,运用双向的组间方差分析(ANOVAs)评定性别和收入对闲暇时间体力活动(LTPA)的主要影响及性别和收入之间的相互影响。在受试者中选出的亚样本(人数共20人)随后完成了定性描述的电话采访,统计数据为定量数据提供便于理解的背景,同时探究显著的社会认知理论对体力活动的影响。
 
Results
Significant findings indicated that men participate in more LTPA than women do, and those from the highest income group participate in more LTPA than low- or middle-income groups (P < .01). Interview results suggested that walking is the most popular form of physical activity; however, gender and income groups differ in other leisure and nonleisure physical activities. Furthermore, patterns for SCT constructs related to physical activity were apparent across gender and income, most noticeably for self-efficacy and environmental and situational influences.
Specifically among men, noteworthy differences existed between income groups for self-control and reinforcement strategies.
 
结果
有统计学显著性意义的结果指出男性比女性参与更多的闲暇时间体力活动,高收入人群比低或中等收入人群参与更多闲暇时间体力活动(P<0.01)。电话采访的结果则显示步行是最受欢迎的闲暇时间体力活动形式,但在其他闲暇时间或非闲暇时间体力活动形式上不同性别和收入组之间则有明显差别。此外,社会认知理论构建体力活动的具体模式在不同性别和收入人群中有明显不同,其中最值得注意的是自我效能和环境及处境的影响。尤其在男性中,不同收入人群在自我控制和强化策略上有值得注意的差别。
 
Conclusions
The study highlights the need for more sensitive self-report measures and objective measures of physical activity to help distinguish whether true differences exist between certain demographic groups. Moreover, interventions that promote walking may be beneficial for people with T2DM, provided that appropriate environmental and policy changes occur to accommodate walking and other physical activity behaviors.
 
结论
这项研究强调了为了辨认在具有不同人口统计学特征的人群中体力活动是否真的存在差别,需要敏感性更高的自我报告措施和更客观的体力活动测量法。此外,在能配合步行和其他体力活动行为的合适环境和政策的前提下,鼓励步行的干预措施可能对患2型糖尿病的患者有益。
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